Sorry, I should have clarified my statement about availablility of type photos. I meant photos of museum specimens, such as those of the GART/GloBIS project, rather than photos published in ODs. Strangely types of many major taxa (bromius, nireus etc) were not photographed at all.
There are more types available illustrated in ODs (eg the type of juventus mentioned above is also illustrated in the OD). Turlin & Lequeux (2010) also illustrated types in their paper.
Once I dig out my box of Papilionidae I'll add a photo of my collection as well. If it's helpful I can, with a bit of time, make up a detailed plate with those specimens.
They're all from NE DRCongo (a couple from central Uganda). It seems P. nireus lyaeus overlaps with the nominate in the savanna here. I also believe I have a number of specimens of P. chrapkowskii which apparently is not found this far west.
Also, if this project gets to the point of doing DNA tests, I'd be glad to provide material to that end.
Post by deliasfanatic on Nov 29, 2018 16:34:04 GMT
The Hancock revision includes a number of photos; offhand, I think that some are types.
Also, I just remembered that I have reference photos of a friend's complete African Papilionidae drawers. I'd ask first, but I'm quite sure that he won't mind my sharing them for this project. His collection is vast, sometimes containing an entire drawer or more of each taxon, and includes many rarities.
charopus charopus Westwood 1843 Cameroun; Fernando Po juventus LeCerf 1924 NE Zaire (Kibale) to W Uganda ?montuosus Joicey & Talbot 1927 Kivu, Zaire; Rwanda; Burundi ?=juventus
Williams, in Afrotropical Butterflies and Skippers has the following note on juventus
juventus Le Cerf, 1924 (as ssp. of Papilio charopus). Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 1: 385 (369-399, 576, 578, 580, 582, 584). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Semliki Valley”. [Invalid; junior primary homonym Papilio juventa Cramer, 1777 [Danainae].]
I was a bit confused about this statement and consulted Gerardo Lamas. He told me that they are not homonyms at all because juventus and juventa are both nouns, not adjectives. Ackery, Smith & Vane-Wright (1995. Carcasson's African Butterflies: 140) incorrectly claimed they are homonyms, and Williams has followed this. This case is similar to Papilio helenus and P. helena (now Troides helena), which are not homonyms.
As a result juventus Le Cerf, 1924 is the valid subspecies name and montuosus Joicey & Talbot, 1927 is a junior subjective synonym. "Subjective" means that the synonymy is a matter of opinion, since the type specimens do not come from exactly the same place. Most synonyms are subjective, they are only definitely objective when they share the same type specimens.
Unfortunately photos of types of almost all of the nireus group taxa are not available. I only have copies of photos of 7 named taxa, and only thuraui, manlius and pulchra are primary types of valid taxa. I am not sure if I have copies of most/all the ODs of taxa in this group or not, I suspect that I probably do.
Thanks for the update Adam, you also mention above that you probably do have copies of the above. is it possible to obtain these ? I am currently typing up the list from deliasfanatic and going to insert descriptions for each and hopefully obtain images to support so the more help the better
Most of the ODs that I have are publicly available online at BHL (https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/), particularly those published before 1923. Many publications are restricted to that date due to US copyright law fixing 1923 as the cut-off point, often called the Mickey Mouse law since it is widely believed that pressure from certain copyright holders helped fix the date. I do have rather low quality copies of many papers from Storace which are rather hard to obtain.
If you need help with ODs that you cannot find please send me a list (name and citation if possible) and I will see what I already have or can obtain.
Next month, everything from 1923 becomes public domain, and hopefully that trend will continue each year.
That's great news. I had noticed that more and more post 1923 material is becoming available on BHL. Possibly many copyright holders of scientific material are giving permission for copies to be made publicly available, hopefully it will be an ongoing trend towards complete open access of these papers.
Can you give us your opinion of the identity of each specimen ... or did you want us to tell you what we think?
I have thoughts on the identities, but I wanted to avoid making any concrete declarations since I'm basically guessing when it comes to the subspecies (with regards to the males). For the females I'm definitely guessing, even at the species level.
I'll give my thoughts, but with the hope that it starts some discussion.
P. charopus juventus (since that seems to be the correct ssp. designation, as opposed to montuosus)
P. chrapkowskoides chrapkowskoides (could be ssp. nurettini, their ranges overlap in the region)
P. sosia pulchra (ssp. debilis is not out of the realm of possibility as that subspecies is said to be found in Ugandan forests along the border with DRC)
P. nireus nireus
P. nireus ? (seems close to the nominate but caught at the same locality as one from the 3rd column)
P. nireus lyaeus (all 4)
P. nireus ?? (maybe? I expect the 4th specimen is separate from the others.)
In the end having, at the very least, the original descriptions of these various subspecies would help (I assume).